History of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan
containing a full account of its early settlement; its
growth, development and resources

Surnames found on this page: ABBOTT, ALLEN, BAILY, BANGS, BIRD, BLEEKER, BLESSINGHAM, BOSWELL, BRABOIS, BREEN, BROOKS, BURCHARD, CARPENTER, CHAMPNEY, CHANDLER, CHAPPIEU, DAVIS, DESART, EASTON, EVARTS, EVELAND, FARLEY, FERRIER, FLESHIEM, GEWEHR, GINTY, GOODWIN, HAGGERSON, HALL, HAWLEY, HAYWARD, HOLMES, INGALLS, IRELAND, JENKINS, KIRBY, KITTSON, LUDINGTON, LYON, MACY, MCCULLOUGH, MCIVER, MORDAUNT, MURPHY, NASON, NELSON, PARENT, PARMENTER, PENDALL, PENGILLY, PHILLIPS, PORTER, QUIMBY, RICHANLY, RICHARDSON, ROWALL, RUSSELL, SALOMON, SAXTON, SOMERVILLE, SOULE, SPAULDING, STEPHENSON, SULLIVAN, THOMAS, VANAUKEN, VANSCHAICK, WALTON, WELLS, WHITE, WHITNEY, WILLIAMS, WOOD

 pg. 477 COUNTY ORGANIZATION

At the time of the first settlement of Menominee County, all of the country from the Menominee River to Lake Huron belonged to Mackinaw County; it was a wilderness with neither civil officers nor white people to fill offices. Subsequently, a county was established, reaching from Lake Michigan to the Menominee River, and called Delta County. There were but few white men in it when it was organized and it was attached to Mackinaw County for judicial purposes.

In 1861, Anson Bangs, who then resided at Marinette, Wis., and owned considerable land on both sides of the river, and had a short time before built a small mill on Little River, a branch of the Menominee, was at Lansing during the session of the Legislature. He, having private subjects in view, without consulting the people of Menominee, obtained the passage of an act to create a new county the name of BLEEKER - an old Albany name - he afterward marrying into a family there by that name. There were many provisions of the act which were obnoxious to the settlers in the county, and they refused to organize under it. At the time appointed for the meeting to elect officers and perfect the organization. BANGS was not in this section of the country. The meeting was to be held at QUIMBY's tavern, and on the day set there was quite an attendance of settlers, but they refused to organize a meeting, and instead of doing so got up placards and charcoal sketches of Bangs, which were not complimentary to him. By the provisions of the act, if the people failed to organize, the new county was to be attached to Marquette County for judicial purposes.

I am now brought to a point where I must arise and explain my position. I dislike as much as any one any exhibition of egotism. I am well aware that when the pronoun "I" appears too often, people are apt to form the opinion that the writer desires to make an exhibition of himself. From this time on I am so mixed up in the affairs of Menominee County that I cannot write it correctly without bringing myself into it, and for the purpose of avoiding the use of many words or frequently my name, I shall use the pronoun when it becomes necessary hereafter. As I must come into the arena, I may as well tell how I came hero. One pleasant evening, in July, 1859, I was landed at the dock of the Menekaune warehouse with my pony, buggy, tent, rifle and dog from the little steamer "Fannie Fisk," Daniel M. WHITNEY, master. I pitched my tent in that village for a few days with the intention of looking around to see the country, which was not a very easy task unless as a walkist, for there were no roads leading out from that river in any direction that could be traversed by a wagon. Being fully satisfied that Menominee had a bright future, of which its splendid water-power, abundance of pine timber, hardwood farming lands and fine port on Green Bay gave promise, I made up my mind that it was a good place to set my stake. It is true it did not look encouraging for a lawyer, but I had become tired of the practice of law, and my health much impaired by close application to the labors necessary in a properly regulated law office. My idea was that I would follow some active out-door business which would improve my health. Not being blessed with an overstock of this world's goods, it was something of a study what business I should go into, or rather how I should get into it, feeling somewhat like "Micawber," I resolved to wait for something "to turn up," and that the writing might not be too expensive I went down the bay shore about three miles to the mouth of Little River. Shortly afterward, Andrew J. EASTON (who afterward married my eldest daughter) joined me. We concluded to stay awhile, so went to work picking up lumber on the bank and built a small house; then I sent for my family which soon afterward joined us.  

We planted a few acres of ground, hunted deer; fished, and, by practicing self-denial and economy, managed to get a living. In 1861, the rebellion broke out, and all the people about the Menominee were patriotic. In fact, it was the worst possible place for a copperhead, and, although we had two or three, their mouths were shut as tight as if closed with sealing wax. I became actively engaged in getting volunteers, and our able-bodied men being aroused began to volunteer. My son-in-law was among the first. Missing him and feeling very lonely, there being no neighbors nearer than Menekauno, three milos from where I lived, I moved my family in the fall of 1861 into Menekauno, and remained there during the winter. It was in the spring of 1861 that the meeting referred to in the commencement of this chapter was held. There being no settled lawyer nearer than Oconto, the people on the pg. 478  

Michigan side of the river were quite anxious that I shouuld come over and counsel with them in regard to organizing a county and I came. After I moved to Menekaune, the Michigan people frequently urged me to come over and become a Wolverine, so in the spring of 1862 I complied with their wishes. During the summer, I built a small house in the now village of Menominee, though it was then in the woods, and moved into it late in the fall.  

The next session of the Legislature commenced in January, 1868. The people here concluded to send me to Lansing to procure the passage of an act to organize a county; they raised money for my expenses by contribution, and on New Year's Day, 1863, I started. When I reached Lansing, the Legislature was organized and in working order. They had elected Hon. Zach CHANDLER Senator the day I reached there, and many of them were feeling so good over it that night that they must have woke up the next day with their hair pulling.  

The member from our district was James S. PENDALL, from Marquette. I prepared such a bill as I thought we needed, and Mr. PENDALL presented it and had it referred. Soon afterward it was reported favorable, passed and became a law, and Menominee County took its place in the list of counties of the State. Its boundaries, except a slight alteration, were the same as the BANGS act: Embracing the fractional Townships 35 and 36, Range 24 west; all of Range 25, from the bay shore to Town 41, inclusive; all of Range 26 and 27 to Town 41, inclusive; all of the towns and fractional towns in Ranges 28, 29, 30, 31, to Town 41, inclusive. The name Menominee for the county had been decided upon by the people before I left home. At that time, there were no settlers in the county except those living at Menominee and up the river, and those living at the mouth of the Big Cedar River; therefore, the county was divided into two townships, viz.,the township of Cedarville, which embraced all the towns in the new county in Ranges 24, 25 and 26 west, and the township of Menominee, which embraced all of Range 27; and the towns and fractional towns in Ranges 28, 29, 30 and 31 west. So far as territory was concerned, this furnished two pretty good sized towns. The town of Menominee is about as large as the State of Rhode Island, being sixty-one miles long aud thirty milos wide at the northern end, and tapering down to a point at its southern extremity. By the provisions of the act, the county seat was to be located in Town 31 north, Range 27 west. John QUIMBY, Sr., Nicholas GEWEHR and E. S. INGALLS were appointed to locate the same. The Commissioners in the spring of 1863 located it on what is called "Court House Square," is Menominee, opposite the QUIMBY Hotel (KIRBY House), where a Clerk's office and jail were afterward erected.  

In 1874, the people having decided to build a court house, the Board of Supervisors bought two acres of land on Ogden Avenue, and removed the county seat to that place. The old Court House Square grounds were sold to the original owners.  

The first election of county officers was to be held on the first Monday in May, 1863, and was so held.  

The act provided that John G. KITTSON, Nicholas GEWEHR and John QUIMBY, Sr., of the town of Menominee, should be a Board of County Canvassers to canvass the votes of the county, and approve all the bonds of the county officers elected, and should meet on the Tuesday following the first Monday after election, and immediately after the vote was declared, notice should be given to the officers elected, who should qualify and their terms commerce. By the middle of May, 1863, the officers had all qualified, and the county was fully organized. The county when organized became part of the judicial district of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. It was made a part of the Representative District, composed of the counties of Menominee, Chippewa, Schoolcraft and Delta, and was then included in the Thirty-second Senatorial and Sixth Congressional Districts. By act of 1875, the counties of Menominee and Delta constitute a Representative District.  

The first county officers were: Judge of Probate, Eleazer S. INGALLS; Sheriff, John QUIMBY; County Clerk, Salmon P. SAXTON; Prosecuting Attorney, E. S. INGALLS; Register of Deeds, Josiah R. BROOKS; Circuit Court Commissioner, E S. INGALLS; County Treasurer, Leroy T. IRELAND; Coroners, Samuel W. ABBOTT, Andrew MCIVER.  

Town officers of Menominee - Supervisor, Samuel M. STEPHENSON; Town Clerk, Austin W. CHAMPNEY; Town Treasurer, Joseph VANAUKEN; Justices of the Peace, John G. KITTSON, O. B. RICHARDSON, Nicholas GEWEHR, William HOLMES; School Inspectors, E. S. INGALLS, Joseph VANAUKEN; Commissioners of Highway, John G. KITTSON, O. B. RICHARDSON, William HOLMES.  

Town officers of Cedarville - Supervisor, Josiah R. BROOKS; Town Treasurer, Salmon P. SAXTON; Justices of the Peace, Josiah R. BROOKS, Robert MCCULLOUGH.  

The county officers for the present years are: Judge of Probate, Thomas B. RICE; Sheriff, John HANLEY; County Clerk, Joseph FLESHIEM; Prosecuting Attorney, E. S. INGALLS; Register of Deeds, Joseph FLESHIEM; Circuit Court Commissioner, E. S. INGALLS; County Treasurer, James H. WALTON; County Surveyor, J. Weston BIRD.  

Town officers of Menominee - Supervisor, Samuel M. STEPHENSON; Town Clerk, John J. FERRIER; Justices of the Peace, Henry NASON, William H. JENKINS, John BREEN and Charles PARENT; School Superintendent, B. T. PHILLIPS; School Inspector, William SOMERVILLE; Town Treasurer, William H. JENKINS.  

Town of Cedarville - Supervisor, E. P. WOOD; Town Clerk, John P. MACY; Town Treasurer; George F. ROWALL; Commissioners of Highway, John FARLEY, Alfred BRABOIS, W. E. EVARTS.  

At the session of the Legislature in the year 1867, an act was passed providing for the organization of a new township to be known as Ingallston. It included in its boundaries all the townships in Range 26, from Town 33 to 41, inclusive. There being but few settlers in the township, it did not adopt a township organization until 1873.  

The first officers elected were: Supervisor, Samuel C. HAYWARD; Town Clerk, Samuel THOMAS; Town Treasurer, John F. NELSON; Justice of the Peace, Nathaniel THOMAS; Mathias BAILY, Charles Smith; Commissioner of Highways, John R. WILLIAMS; School Inspectors, John R. WILLIAMS, Daniel SULLIVAN.  

The present officers are: Supervisor, John MURPHY; Town Clerk, Charles ALLEN; Town Treasurer, George HAGGERSON; Commissioner of Highways, James MORDAUNT; Justices of the Peace, Lucius RUSSELL, Louis DESART, John BLESSINGHAM. When the county was first organized, the whole duty of doing or seeing done the duties of county officers was thrown upon me, they all being in business, could not afford to devote their whole time to county affairs I went to Waukegan, Ill. for George W. JENKINS to come and act as Deputy Circuit and County Clerk He gave good satisfaction, and was elected the next year and held the office until his death in 1871.  

At the time of the organization, there were no judicial circuits in the Upper Peninsula. We had a court styled  

pg. 479 the District Court of the Upper Peninsula, with the same powers as Circuit Court.  

The Hon. Daniel GOODWIN was Judge, and has held the position since the district was first judicially organized. He has long been identified with the judiciary of the State, and was President of the Constitutional Convention of 1850. He is a resident of Detroit, and was sent from Wayne County to the Constitutional Convention of 1868, of which I was also a member.  

The Upper Peninsula was organized into a judicial district at the session of the Legislature of 1851. The act providing for its organization took effect July 8, 1851. The Judge was elected on the last Tuesday of that year.  

In 1863, the Legislature passed an act creating. the Eleventh Judicial Circuit in place of the District Court, and Judge GOODWIN continued to preside as Judge of the circuit.  

In 1865, the Legislature passed an act creating the Twelfth Judicial Circuit from a part of the Eleventh, leaving the counties of Menominee, Delta Chippewa, Mackinaw, Cheboygan and Manitou in the Eleventh District, and Judge GOODWIN has continued to preside in this circuit. He was re-elected in 1870 for a term of six years, commencing in January, 1876. Judge GOODWIN has, during all this long period, performed his judicial duties with such impartiality and ability that he has won the approbation and respect of every person in the district or circuit. There were but few people here when the county was organized, aud many of these being transient men were not voters. At the first election held in Menominee, the number of votes cast was forty-five, and in the town of Cedarville, ten. The officers of the county were occupying a dwelling house owned by John QUIMBY (the house where his widow now resides). The Circuit Courts were held in the hall of the QUIMBY House (now KIRBY House). At and before the organization of the county, all mail tor Menominee came to Menekaune, Wis.; but having organized a county seat it was necessary to have a post office, and the Department established one at Menominee in the year 1863, and Norman R. SOULE was appointed Postmaster (although I performed the actual duties of it), and held the office until the next year, when Samuel W. ABBOTT was appointed, and has held the office ever since. At first he had to go to Menekaune for the mail bag in the summer season, and sometimes in the winter. In summer, the mail came three times a week from Green Bay by boat, and in winter by stage. At that time trees covered the ground over where the greater part of the village of Menominee now stands, and the writer has shot deer aud assisted in a bear hunt in what are now the most public places. Where Main street now is was the best place to hunt wild pigeons in this section of the country. In the spring and fall, the river was a favorite resort for wild ducks and sportsmen who hunted them. There were no roads in the county, except a very poor supply road leading up the Menominee River, which the mill companies had cut out for a winter road, and which could hardly be traversed by a wagon during the summer.  

When Anson BANGS was in Lansing during the session of the Legislature of 1861, he did do one thing which proved of great benefit to the county which ought to be set off against his mis-move in trying to organize the county of Bleeker. He caused an act to be passed granting two sections of land to each mile for the purpose of constructing a State road from Menominee to Masonville in Delta County, to be called the Green Bay & Bay du Noc State Road, and the same amount for a road from the month of the Menominee River to a point in Marquette County, to be called the Wisconsin & Lake Superior State road. It generally thought that no person could afford to build any sort of a road for the grant. At that time, plenty of land was to be entered for $1.25 per acre, and by buying road scrip, State lands could be obtained for $1 per acre. It was thought that the country was so swampy between Menominee Village and Delta County that a road could not be built without great expense. The only way the people of Lake Superior could get to the outside world, as it was then called, in the winter, was by crossing the divide with dog trains to the head of Little Bay du Noc, and then follow the beach to Green Bay.  

Hon. Peter WHITE, of Marquette, once told me on one occasion when he was compelled to come down into Wisconsin in the winter, it took him three weeks to make the journey from that place to Green Bay City. They were therefore very anxious to have a road opened, and often wrote to me on the subject, and during the winter of 1863-64, when coming through, talked of it, and urged that the Menominee people should take some step to have a road constructed In the summer of 1883, C. T. Harvey had opened a road from Masonville to Marquette.  

Accordingly, in the spring of 1864, application made to the Governor, and Josiah R. BROOKS was appointed Commissioner to lay out and cause the road to be constructed, and he had the road surveyed (R. L. HALL having charge of the survey), and took steps to let a contract for its construction. But the greatest difficulty was to find any one to undertake it, and when the time appointed to let the contract came there was not a person to put in a bid. Being determined that a road should be built, the writer put in a bid to construct all of the road that lay in Menominee County for the grant, and executed the necessary papers. So sure were the people that a road could not be built for the grant, that on the day my men met to commence work on it, one of our prominent public men told me that he would give me his ear if I did not fail in the enterprise that year. I told him that I would call on him for the ear before the snow would fly. My contact only required that the road should be cut through sixteen feet wide that year, so that the road ,would be available for winter use, and provided for its completion afterward. I called on the gentleman for the ear, but I have not received it yet, although I am entitled to it, according to the offer. On the 5th of December, my men had got through, and T. T. HAWLEY coming through shortly afterward, and finding that he could carry the mails through on it, in a few days had a line of stages running over it, and thus secured the mail route tor Lake Superior through Menominee, instead of by way of Ontonagon, where parties interested were trying to secure it.  

When I was at Lansing in the winter of 1863 to obtain the passage of the act to organize the county, I found the Legislature favorably disposed toward the people here, and desirous of aiding them in opening the county to settlement.  

We had no bridge across the Menominee River, and the only way of crossing in the summer was in small boats for men, and scows for horses, which was very inconvenient. I became impressed with the idea that a land grant could be obtained to build a bridge. The people here could not afford to build it without help. I had friends in the Wisconsin Legislature, among whom was Col. George C. GINTY, of Oconto County. I drafted a bill for an act giving five sections of land in Michigan to aid in the construction of the bridge, and another for the Wisconsin Legislature, giving ten sections, and sent it to Col. GINTY. Pg. 480

My reason for making that ten sections, was that the lands in Michigan were much more valuable than in Oconto County, Wis, where the lands would be located. I then wrote to Hon. Isaac STEPHENSON, of Marinette, and S. M. STEPHENSON, of Menominee, about the matter, asking them to use their influence for the project, and to have petitions signed and forwarded to each Legislature, which was done by them. The Michigan Legislature readily passed the bill, and Col. GINTY had no difficulty in obtaining the passage of the bill sent there, but it failed to became a law, although it killed the Governor of Wisconsin so far as his political aspirations were concerned, and gave Wisconsin one of the best war Governors the State has had. During that session, there was a strong feeling aroused on the subject of using the State swamp lands for the improvement of roads in the counties where the lands were situated. All of the members from the northern and northwestern parts of the State, which were new, were in favor of it, while those from the southern and southwestern parts, which were old and had their roads built, were opposed to it. The bill passed with so largo a vote in its favor that it was evident that it could be passed over any veto the Governor might give.  

The Governor (SALOMON) lived in Milwaukee, and his feelings seemed to be with the opponents of the bill, for instance of vetoing, and giving the Legislature an opportunity to pass it over his head, he put it in his pocket and kept it there, to the great indignation and disgust of its friends. That killed the bill for that winter. It happened that the next summer when the State Convention met, Col. GINTY was a delegate, and found that a majority of the convention were members who had supported the bill the winter previous, and not having got over their disgust at Gov. SALOMON's act (who was a candidate for re-election for Governor), they laid him on the shelf, and nominated James T. Lewis, who proved one of the best Governors Wisconsin ever had. The next winter the bill was again passed as originally drawn, and became a Law. Meanwhile, the people here thought the fifteen sections of land insufficient to build the bridge, the length of which would be about one-third of a mile, and the value of the grant could not be estimated at over $1 per acre, as lands could be located with script at that price.

The next winter (1865), I again had occasion to go to Lansing while the Legislature was in session, and our grant had expired by limitation, for the reason that the bridge had not been built. I had another bill presented extending the time for building it, and giving ten sections of land, which passed and became a law, making the whole grant from both States twenty sections. The Commissioners appointed in the law to have charge of building the bridge, were the Board of Supervisors of Menominee County. and the Board of Supervisors of the town of Marinette, Wis. Still there were difficulties in the way of its construction. The Menekaune interest and a part of Menominee wanted it built near the mouth of the river, the Marinette people and a part of the Menominee people desired it tn be built across the river up near the Dr. HALL place, or at least across Thibault Island, where the railroad now crosses. The contention about the location of the bridge lasted nearly two years, when it was decided to build it in its present location, and the N. LUDINGTON Company took the contract to build it, and it was built for the land grant in 1867.  

In 1866, the mill companies on both sides of the river being desirous of having a better road up the Menominee River than the supply road on which they had been compelled to rely, I was appointed Commissioner to locate and build the Wisconsin & Lake Superior State Road, which runs up the Menominee River. The Board of Supervisors appropriated the necessary money to defray expenses of survey. The survey was immediately commenced, and carried through to completion. The contract was let to the KIRBY-CARPENTER Company, R. STEPHENSON Company (now LUDINGTON, WELLS & VANSCHAICK Company) and SPAULDING & PORTER Company, who commenced the work without delay. The next season I resigned as Commissioner, and William HOLMES was appointed in my place, who continued in charge of it until work was stopped. The road is now completed forty-two miles, and nearly up to the KIRBY-CARPENTER Company's farm, and is a very good road. In constructing to that point, nearly or qu te ten miles in distance is saved compared with the old route.  

Our county kind been without a court house, holding our courts in public halls. Our officers had all believed that it was better to wait until a good building could be erected than put up a cheap one.  

The county had always been out of debt. When first organized, it was decided that "pay as you go " was the best policy, so we have followed that rule, and the only debt the county had ever incurred that was not paid during the same year, was the sum of $5,000 borrowed on bonds to pay soldiers' bounties during the war. These bonds were drawn to run five years, and were all taken by the people living here, and were paid at the expiration of three years. When the county was first organized, the assessable property in the county was valued at about $160,001.25. It is now valued at $1,363,319.83. Our people, in view of these facts, came to the conclusion that we could well afford to take the risk of building a good court house, and issue the bonds of the county to raise money for its construction. Accordingly, in 1874, the necessary steps were taken, and the bonds issued. They were readily sold, and the building was began that year and completed in 1875. Now the county has a court house which would be no discredit to any city of the State. It is built of brick and stone, the first or basement story being occupied as a jail and room for residence of the jailor. The cells are entirely of stone and iron. The second story is fitted up for offices, with fire and burglar proof vaults to every office; while in the upper story are the court room, jury and judges' rooms. It is constructed with all the modern appliances and conveniences. It cost in round numbers $32,000. During the same year (1874), the township of Menominee constructed a good brick town hall at a cost of $8,000; the first story of which is used for an engine room for the steam fire engine owned by the town; the second for a town hall, town library and office for town officers. The building is a substantial one, and would do credit to much larger and older towns.  

Two years preciously, the people of the town organized a library, so that in 1876 it contained 1,200 volumes.

SCHOOLS The first school now remembered to be kept in Menominee was by Emily BURCHARD in 1857, in a part of Henry NASON's house, at his shingle mill on the shore of Green Bay. It was supported by subscription. There is a tradition that one had been previously kept at the old watermill by a daughter of A. F. LYON, but nothing definite is known of it.  

The first schoolhouse in the county was built by A. F. LYON, Henry NASON, W. G. BOSWELL, Andreas EVELAND, E. N. DAVIS and a few others in 1857, near where the railroad now crosses Ogden avenue in the village of Menominee.

pg. 481  

It was built of hewed timber by voluntary labor and contribution. It was used but one term. When the county was organized in 1863, the school laws were put in force, and districts were organized. District No. 1 in Menominee, embraced all of the village lying along Green Bay and near the mouth of the river; District No. 2 included that part of the village now called Frenchtown; District No. 3 was organized, embracing within its limits all the settlers about John G. KITTSON's place near CHAPPIEU's Rapids.

Since that time, a district has been organized at Birch Creek settlement, and another at Railroad Section 22 (twenty-two miles from Menominee), now called Stephenson.  

The township of Cedarville had one district established, and has usually kept a school there since.  

Since the organization of the township of Ingallston, two districts have been organized, one at SPAULDING (Railroad Section 42) and one at English (Railroad Section 39).  

In all these small districts, schools have been regularly kept since their organization, except the one at CHAPPIEU's Rapids, in the township of Menominee, where the people failed to perfect their organization. In the village of Menominee, which has always contained the bulk of the population, the greater attention has been paid to schools. The first School Inspectors for the village of Menominee were E. S. INGALLS and Joseph VANAUKEN; the first District Board were E S. INGALLS, Moderator, and Robert PENGILLY, Assessor.  

The present School Inspectors are Benjamin T. PHILLIPS, Superintendent, and William SOMERVILLE, Inspector.  

The present School Board of District No. 1, Menominee, are Samuel M. STEPHENSON, Moderator; Edward L. PARMENTER, Director, and Robert STEPHENSON, Assessor.  

The first schools held in District No. 1, Menominee, were in a small building owned by Samuel W. ABBOTT, which had been built for storing fishing nets It was about 16x18 feet, built of rough boards and filled between the joists with saw dust (the same building was also the first post office building after Mr. ABBOTT became Postmaster). The seats were long, narrow benches, better calculated for the punishment of children than for their comfort, but they did not mind that much, so long as they could while away the time, when the teacher's eyes were not on them, by digging sawdust out from the cracks.  

I shall never forget the disgust exhibited by the first teacher that went into that building to teach. I had been to Green Bay City and employed a lady teacher, and had given her as good an idea of the advantages and disadvantages as I could in words. But she could not understand the nature of a schoolhouse in a new place just starting until she came in person, yet she stuck to it until the term was out, and kept a good school. It was not long, however, that such a building had to be used. The people determined to have a better one, and in 1864 built and furnished one 24x28 feet. It was thought that this would be large enough for many years, but we soon learned our mistake. Settlers came in so fast that in a short time not half of the scholars could be accommodated. So the schoolhouse was sold, and in 1868 another was built, planned for a graded school. This, though a wooden building, was a good one, costing $7,000. The first story is divided into two apartments, the second story is all in one, though two teachers (the professor and assistant) are employed therein, making it equivalent to two schools.  

For the last four years, Prof. J. Wesley BIRD has had charge of this and other schools in this district, and we may safety claim that our schools are as good as any the State.  

It was soon found that this building did not furnish sufficient room, and another schoolhouse was built in the district on Holmes avenue, and another building rented for a school room on Ogden avenue.  

District No. 2 also built a schoolhouse, which they have found too small, and during the year (1876) erected a large two-story building, which will probably be sufficient for several years. In 1880-81, the large red brick school building was erected at a cost of $17,000.  

POPULATION The first general returns of population were made from Menominee in 1870. Cedarville was credited with 194 inhabitants, and Menominee with 1,597, including nine half-breeds and three Indians.  

The population of Menominee County in 1880 was as follows:  

Breen Township, 546; Breitung Township, 4,559; Cedarville Township, 229; Holmes Township, 158; Ingallsson Township, 195; Menominee Township and Village, 3,947. The total was 11,988, including 119 Indians and three half-breeds.  

WAR RECORD  

In the general history references are made to the private soldiers and commissioned officers furnished to the Union armies from 1861 to 1865. The county expended $390 for the relief of soldiers, families. The county is not credited with an appropriation for war purposes.

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